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張老師說

他在學術上知道了什麼

張尚德老師講

黃高証記錄

張老師今年十月在湘潭道南書院的七日禪修中,報告自己在中西學術上知道了什麼:

一、語言非實,以指指月,指不是月。事實經驗為要,切莫在散散的心意識中亂說。古今中外,亂說者何其多也。

二、他知道,一切存在是緣起性空、性空緣起的。地水火風四大皆空,色受想行識五蘊為幻,在了知「因假說我法」中,有一個非法非非法,即超越有與空之存在而存在者。

三、在一切存在的緣起性空中,《華嚴經》說得清清楚楚,並沒有一個在哲學上所說的「體」。也就是:

「一切法無體」

四、過去中外許多知識和學問大家,當對一種問題說不下去時,就將其歸到所謂形而上的「體」,此類理知不成立。

五、康德哲學說:形而上的體(物自體),是人類知識所不能知的。但透過禪門的認知與證悟自己的方法,是可以証到自己究竟是什麼的。原來「體」也者,即性空也。

六、空,《大智度論》說十八空,《大般若經》說二十空,最後都否定掉,沒有一個什麼空不空,原來種種所說的空,全在描述一切存在成住壞空的「空」。

七、到此地步,存在,特別是人的存在,又歸到哪裡去呢?

      歸到觀音法門:

「初於聞中,入流亡所,所入既寂,動靜二相,了然不生,如是漸增,聞所聞盡,盡聞不住,覺所覺空,空覺極圓,空所空滅,生滅既滅,寂滅現前。忽然超越世出世間,十方圓明獲二殊勝:一者上合十方諸佛本妙覺心,與佛如來同一慈力;二者下合十方一切六道眾生,與諸眾生同一悲仰。」

八、「動靜二相,了然不生」,動就是陽,靜就是陰,《易經》從乾坤二卦演繹出八八六十四卦,脫離不了陰陽。也就是說,陰陽相合才成其為物。則陰陽未生或陰陽未合時,它們又在哪裡?它們無所在無所不在。於此狀態中,人可以做到「動靜二相,了然不生」,也就是超越陰陽。

那到哪裡去呢?

到:

佛家的與宇宙常寂光合而為一,徧照一切,常樂我淨,遊戲三昧,佛也。

儒家的仁道一以貫之,隨心所欲不逾矩。與天地合其德,與日月合其明,與四時合其序,與鬼神合其吉凶。放之則彌六合,卷之則退藏於密,聖也。

道家的道通為一,至人無己,神人無功,聖人無名,逍遙遊,道也。

附:

現代科學所說的電子與量子,就在我們人體身上。當心意識與之相合起用,便有種種的功能與作用。有些研究醫學和氣功的,稱之為「靈樞」。實際上,「靈樞」即《楞嚴經》中說的:

「純覺」。

問題來了,人死後這純覺到哪裡去呢?

答:「純覺」是不生、不滅、不垢、不淨、不增、不減的。

那究竟是什麼?

二零一九年十月三十日

於台灣達摩書院

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唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

   達摩書院副院長黃高証

247

歸到善法

《成唯識論》卷七

四、增上緣

四增上緣。謂若有法有勝勢用。能於餘法或順或違。

雖前三緣亦是增上。而今第四除彼取餘。為顯諸緣差別相故。

此順違用於四處轉。生位成得四事別故。

(述記義演:生者。三界法生。住者。……一切有情草木萬物皆依地而住也。成者。謂成立成辦。成立者。宗因譬喻為建立。成辦者。謂工巧智為先。劬勞為建立。得者。……證得涅槃。……隨法者謂有漏世間修慧也。)

然增上用隨事雖多。而勝顯者唯二十二。應知即是二十二根。

前五色根以本識等所變眼等淨色為性。

男女二根身根所攝故。即以彼少分為性。

命根但依本識親種分位假立。非別有性。

意根總以八識為性。

五受根如應各自受為性。

信等五根即以信等及善念等而為自性。

(述記:信等。等取精進。及善念等者。等取定慧。)

未知當知根體位有三種。

一根本位。謂在見道。除後剎那。無所未知可當知故。

二加行位。謂煖頂忍世第一法。近能引發根本位故。

三資糧位。謂從為得諦現觀故發起決定勝善法欲。乃至未得順決擇分所有善根名資糧位。能遠資生根本位故。

於此三位信等五根意喜樂捨為此根性。

加行等位於後勝法求證愁慼亦有憂根。非正善根。故多不說。

前三無色有此根者。有勝見道傍修得故。

或二乘位迴趣大者為證法空。地前亦起九地所攝生空無漏。彼皆菩薩此根攝故。

(述記:此或是二乘第三果已去迴趣大者。為證初地法空。地前亦起九地所攝生空無漏智。九地者六色界.三無色。彼先生空智。為菩薩觀起。順菩薩觀故皆此根攝。說彼有此根非違理也。)

(述記義演:未知根於見道證法空觀時立。)

菩薩見道亦有此根。但說地前。以時促故。

始從見道最後剎那乃至金剛喻定。所有信等無漏九根皆是已知根性。

未離欲者於上解脫求證愁慼。亦有憂根。非正善根。故多不說。

諸無學位無漏九根一切皆是具知根性。

有頂雖有遊觀無漏。而不明利。非後三根。

二十二根自性如是。諸餘門義如論應知。

(述記:此諸門義如五十七等說。)

 

英譯(韋達)

4. ADHIPATIPRATYAYA

Condition quâ Contributory Factor

Adhipatipratyaya is the 'condition quâ contributory factor', 'condition in general', a real dharma (conditioned or unconditioned, as opposed to imaginary dharmas), possessing potent energy and capable of promoting (first nine hetus) or counteracting (tenth hetu) the evolution of another dharma.

The dharmas which are Hetu, Alambana, Samanantarapratyaya, are also Adhipatipratyaya ; but, for the purpose of indicating the variety of modes of causality (pratyaya), a fourth category is established under the name of Adhipatipratyaya for all those dharmas which are Pratyayas regardless of their causality quâ Hetu, etc.

The promoting and counteracting activity of Adhipatipratyaya operates in four ways: (1) generation of dharmas of the three Dhatus; (2) sustainment, like the earth which sustains sentient beings, the vegetable kingdom, and all other things; (3) realization, which is of two kinds; reason and example in arguing, and technique and labour in industry; (4) attainment of Nirvana or of worldly dharmas.

Although the activity of Adhipatipratyaya is multiple and varies according to the different kinds of dharmas, yet, essentially and manifestly, it consists of only twenty-two modes: these are the twenty-two Indriyas (roots, organs, or powers).

1—5. The five material Indriyas or organs. They have as their essential nature the subtle Rupa (eyes,etc.) which is the manifestation of Mulavijnana, etc.

6—7. The two sexual organs, being comprised in the Kayendriya (body), are a part of this Indriya.

8.     The vital organ, jivitendriya, does not exist in itself; as we have seen, it is simply the designation of a certain aspect of the Bijas.

9.     The mental mana-indriya: It has as its essential nature the eight consciousnesses.

10-14. The five organs of sensation have as their essential nature the five sensations that are associated, to varying extents according to the case, with the eight consciousnesses.

15-19. The five moral Indriyas or roots, belief, etc. have as their nature two good Caittas, belief and zeal, and, among the special Caittas, good memory, Samadhi, and discernment.

20. Anajnatamajnasyamindriya, the Indriya or power to learn [the Four Noble Truths].

(1)   It is necessary to distinguish three states and three periods

a.     Mulavastha (fundamental state). This refers to the Darsanamarga (Insight into Transcendent Truth) to the exclusion of the last moment preceding the attainment of this insight when nothing remains unknown.

b.     Prayogavastha (the stage of intensified effort), immediate preparation for Darsanamarga, This refers to the Nirvedhabhagiyas1 which can lead directly to Mulavastha.

c.     Sambharavastha (the stage of moral provisioning), distant preparation for Darsanamarga. This refers to the period after entry into the Kalpa, - from the moment when the yogin, with a view to obtaining the Satyabhisamaya (Realization of Truth), produces the aspiration for the 'definitely superior and most excellent Dharma' (Nirvana) up to, but not including, the Nirvedhabhagiyas:1 all the roots of excellence in this interval constitute Sambharavastha, the period of equipment, because they organize and produce indirectly the Mulavastha.

(2)   The five moral Indriyas of these three periods, belief, etc., with Manas and the three sensations of delight, joy, and indifference, nine Indriyas in all, constitute the Anajnatam, - No doubt, in the course of the two preparatory periods, in the search of the Supreme Dharma, sadness or regret is also produced. Hence a tenth Indriya, grief or anxiety. But this grief, inasmuch as it is not the principal root of good, is not counted by the Yogasastra in the number of Indriyas that constitute the Anajnatam or 'the Root of the knowledge of the unknown'.

(3)   The Anajnatam or power exists in the contemplations of the first three Arupyadhatus, because the superior Darsanamarga can include the accessory possession of these contemplations, or because the yogins of the two Vehicles who, through possession of the third fruit (Anagamins), turn their mind towards Mahabodhi, produce - with a view to realizing the dharmasunyata (Darsanamarga first Land) and before entering into this Land - a pure knowledge of the pudgalasunyata included in the nine Lands (six Rupas and three Arupyas). Hence these Bodhisattvas possess the Anajnatam.

The Darsanabhaga of Bodhisattvas includes the Anajnatam, as we have noted; but the Yogasastra mentions it only in the period preceding the ten Lands, because the period of time of Darsanamarga in which it exists is very limited.

21. Ajnendriya, the power of having learned [the Four Noble Truths]; from the last moment of Darsanamarga (insight into Transcendent Truth), including it, up to Vajropamasamadhi (Diamond Samadhi), nine pure Indriyas: belief, etc., Manas, delight, joy, and indifference.

Yogins who have not detached themselves from desire, in their search of deliverance, experience sadness and regret; hence the grief-indriya is also included in the Ajnendriya; but this Indriya is not named, because, as mentioned above, it is not the principal root of good.

22. Ajnatavindriya, the power of perfect knowledge of the Four Noble Truths: nine pure Indriyas in the state of Asaiksa.

The Bhavagra does not include the last three Indriyas although discursive pure contemplation is present: the latter is, in fact, not clear and vivid.

Such is the essential nature (svabhava) of the twenty-two Indriyas. The explanation of the problems concerning them is found in the Yogasastra, 57.

 

 1 Cf. ‘ Prayogavastha’ in Section on The Path, in Book IX.

 

中譯(黃高証)

4、增上緣

增上緣是“促成作用之助緣”,“普遍性的條件”,真實的法(有為或無為,而非虛構的法),有強大作用,能幫助他法(眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意、女、男、命等前九根)或抵消他法(苦根為第十根)的轉變。

因緣、等無間緣、所緣緣等法雖然也有增上的作用;但是,為了說明諸緣差別模式,故立第四緣,名為增上緣。凡是因緣等前三緣以外的所有條件都屬於增上緣。

增上緣的順違作用表現在四方面:(1)生:三界法的生起;(2)住:就像一切有情草木萬物皆依大地而住;(3)成:可分二類:成立論證的宗因喻,以及成辦工巧智和工藝;(4)得:證得涅槃或成就世間法。

雖然增上緣的作用因法而異,隨開多門,但具明顯勢用的,只有二十二種模式:這就是二十二根(根、官能或力量)。

1-5五色根或官能,是以(眼等)淨色為本質,這是根本識等的變現。

6-7、男女二根,包括在身根(身體)之中,是身根的一部分。

8. 命根,非依自身而存在;如前所述,它只是依種子的部分特性而假立。

9. 意根,是以八個識為基本性質。

10-14、五受根,以苦、樂、憂、喜、捨五種感受為其本質,它們與八個識有不同程度的聯繫。

1519、信、精進、念、定、慧等五根,以信、精進二善心所及善念、定、慧等別境為其本質。

20、未知當知根:修學(四聖諦)之根或力。

1)分為三位、三個階段:

a. 根本位(基本狀態)。這是指見道位(洞察超驗真理)的階段。但不包括見道圓滿的最後剎那,因為此時再也沒有什麼是未知當知的。

b. 加行位(用功不懈的階段),為了達到見道位而修諸近行,這是指煖、頂、忍、世第一法1,可直接引發根本位而見道。

c. 資糧位(培養善法階段),了達到見道位而做長期準備。這是指歷劫以來,行者為了成就聖諦現觀,追求決定殊勝的善法(涅槃),乃至未得順決擇分1所有善根之前,都叫做資糧位,因為可以間接引生根本位。

2)上述三位是以信等五根,意及喜、樂、捨三受,合計九根,構成了未知當知根。無疑地,在加行位及資糧位尋求勝道之過程,也可能會有憂傷或愁慼,即第十根──憂根。但此憂根並不是真正的無漏善根,所以《瑜伽論》沒有把它歸入未知當知根的內容之一

3)無色界的空無邊處、識無邊處、無所有處三定都有此未知當知根(或力),因為勝見道者也有傍修此三定的,或者因為已得三果(阿那含)的二乘行者,迴趣大乘,為證法空(見道位,即初地菩薩)。在此之前,先有生空無漏智,這就包含了九地(色界有六:四禪、未至定、中間定;無色定有三:空無邊處、識無邊處、無所有處)。因此,這些菩薩同樣有未知當知根。

見道位菩薩亦有未知當知根,如前已述;但《瑜伽論》只說地前菩薩才有此根,因為見道位有未知當知根的時間非常短暫。

21、已知根,即已知四聖諦的能力。由見道(洞察超然真理)最後剎那到金剛喻定(金剛三昧),皆有已知根,包含所有無漏九根,即:信、精進、念、定、慧等等五根加上意、喜、樂、捨。

     未離欲之行者,在追尋解脫的過程中,仍不免愁慼之憾;因此,憂根雖也包含在已知根中;但常略而不言,因為如前所述,它不是主要善根。

22、具知根,即完全知道四聖諦的能力。諸無學位一切無漏九根,皆是具知根性。

有頂天人雖可遊觀無漏定境但不夠明利,故不屬後三無漏根所攝。

如是即為二十二根的基本性質。其他相關問題的解釋,可參考《瑜伽論》卷57

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1參見本論卷九 “聖道”中的“加行位

 

尚德按:

此次《成唯識論》的「增上緣」提到「命根」,說命根非依自身而存在,就是說命根依種子識而來。

《禮記》有言:「凡物皆命。」

曾國藩講:「升官發財都是命。」

這就是佛法所說的因果業力。

命根者,在業力中也。

說到「意根」,為八個識的基本性質,這也就是說,意根為認識力的樞紐。

至於講到「苦、樂、憂、喜、捨」的五受根,它們與八個識有不同程度的聯繫。

禪門講:「苦樂平懷」,就是要轉八識成四智。

再談「信、精進、念、定、慧」五根,以信、精進二善心所及善念、定、慧等別境為其本質。這裡要特別注意的是,從八個識的整體性來看,人是有善性的。佛法也者,最重要的還是要;

入善

修善

總結的說,阿賴耶識雖然無善無惡,但一旦起用,還是要;

歸到善法。

 

    附:此次是完全按照韋達英文原文而譯述的。

 

248

待續  

 

 

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台灣達摩書院

新春七日禪修  

主持:

張尚德老師(示範唱誦古典詩詞,如何讀誦古文,解釋究竟什麼是悟,悟的條件是什麼?)

蔡宗儒教授(講解《維摩詰經》)

黃高証博士(講解成佛的《法華》)

劉美秀(準提咒)

日期:

2020126(農曆新年初二,星期日)至21日(星期六)

 

 地點:

台灣達摩書院

 

 資料:

1. 《維摩詰經》

2. 《法華經》

 

 報名方式:

填妥報名表,准後通知(報名表下載)

 微信:D931816

電話:0983517589, 037-931816.

地址:台灣苗栗縣獅潭鄉豐林村大坡塘九號

 

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造福人類,和睦萬邦

張尚德

說復興中華文化,仔細想來,過去幾千年,中國有些傳統思想是有問題的,例如:孔子讚歎顏回的貧窮,鼓勵君子固窮。幾千年來,中國始終有太多的貧困人民,中國大陸現在全力掃貧,太好了。尚德認為:中國人民的貧窮被掃乾 淨後,應提倡大家致富,如此才能真正國富民強。

當進行物質富有的同時,也要深化極具智慧的精神文明,物質和精神是可以在有禮和講理中互為前進的。

我在道南書院十一的禪七結束時,說了兩句話:

「用富有的物質文明造福人類;

讓精神的智慧力量和睦萬邦。」

只要大家勤勞節儉,努力創發,則物質全面富有的生活和明妙安樂的精神境界,是可以達成的。

二O一九年十月十八日

於台灣達摩書院

 

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我为什么来这里?学到了什么?

2019道南书院五一禅七报告   靳宪勇 

2019428日下午,美秀姐传达师命,命我报告,我为什么来这里?学到了什么?问题似乎平常,思之颇深,顿觉惶恐。光阴似箭,如梦如幻,回首九年来,追随张老师的点点滴滴,万分惭愧,不禁感慨。“业识奔如许,乡关到几时?莫言精进我,羞对天之师。五蕴明明幻,诸缘处处痴。”“当时只时平常事,过后思量倍有情。”

晚上思考良久,429日上午,汗颜报告。

一、我为什么来这里?

人世间事,必然中有偶然,偶然有必然。古人曰:“虽曰人事,岂非天命。”如梦如幻的世界里,有冥冥的注定,有亘古不变的真理。

出生于山东农村,三岁丧父,历观农民之艰辛,生活之困苦。虽少年不知愁滋味,然人世间悲欢离合、苦辣酸甜,已深深浸入心田。九三年大学毕业,热情洋溢、理想高远,似有一番大作为气概。九八年娶妻生子,生活安定。然面对挫折、面对社会却有无限的情怀郁遏于胸,不能伸张。一日凌晨梦中醒来,思念亲人、忽然大哭。妻愕然,我想自己大概是“抑郁了”。不禁思考“人为什么活着?”“活着的意义与价值又是什么?”好友指点,开始读南师的书。《论语别裁》、《老子他说》、《金刚经说什么》反复阅读,反复思考。渐渐,心理安定许多。同时发现,人生、社会一切问题,不断追究下去,都归到“本源”问题。即究竟人是什么?社会究竟是什么?这个世界究竟是什么?

2011年达摩书院参加禅七,第二天大哭一场。第七天向老师汇报。师问:“这几天怎么样?”我说:“来之前我没什么疑惑。七天间,我又有了许多困惑。然而现在又没有了。”师问:“怎么讲?”我说:“人生处处都是死路,人生只有一条路,走圣贤之路。”师点头说:“你悟的好深啊。”且鼓励我说:“你要直追北大大儒梁漱溟先生。”我惶恐说:“不敢。”我深知梁先生关心人生与国家,不断思考不断实践救自己、救社会之真理。他一生学问皆来于此,为众人所景仰。

圣贤之路是人彻底归到自己,明白自己是什么?世界是什么?是人生最艰难、最光明的大道。需要彻底牺牲自己,超越一切苦难。不仅这一生要精进,更需要历劫修行。生生世世,世世生生,升华与超越。于是我来到了这里。

一晃八九年过去,无论是达摩还是道南,每次来,我的身心都是一次洗礼,每一次都深受教育,每一次都是一次升华。

二、学到了什么?

姑且用佛法中的见地,修证与行愿三个方面来说。

(一)见地上学到了什么?

唐后,中国文化三大家归为儒释道。三家的书是讲往圣先贤的思想理论。实质上是讲我们自己,是讲我们这个世界。南师说,世间一切学问,大至宇宙,细至无间,都是为了解决身心性命问题。学习中国文化、学习佛法,要身心受用。说起孔子、老子、释迦摩尼佛,往圣先贤,似乎离我们如此遥远,实际上,就在我们身边,南老师、张老师就是示现,就是我们人生的木铎。

儒释道三家告诉了我们人生的真理,实事求是的真理。人究竟是什么?这个世界究竟是什么?

人人都有佛性,人人都可为尧舜。人本来无事,本来清净,本来自在,本来一切具足。人归到本来的自己,就是完成自己,就是拯救自己,就是解脱自己。

道家讲,天地与我同根,万物与我一体。楞严经讲,不知色身外洎山河虚空大地咸是妙明真心中物。譬之澄清百千大海,弃之,唯认一浮沤体目为全潮。人根本问题是紧紧抓住自己,有个我。其实大海是你,而人抛弃了大海,抓住那个如浪花的身体为自己。由此,我们明白,菩萨的无缘大慈,同体大悲。帮助别人就是帮助自己,救社会就是救自己。老子讲,善人不善人之师,不善人善人之资。

解决自己、社会、天下、人类问题,或者说人救自己的路可总结为:无私、无我、无法、慈悲喜舍,修一切善行,完成一切功德,归到至真、至善、至美。

(二)修证上学到了什么?

理论如此,道理明白了。真正修证,要高高山顶立,深深海底行。

自天子以至于庶人皆以修身为本。中国文化的法宝就是,不断反省自己、研究自己,观照自己,如切如磋,如琢如磨。《百法明门论》讲,我们要不断去掉二十六个恶,增长十一个善。烦恼不断减少,把自己洗刷干净。心灵归于平静,归于清净无事。

在书院我学会了打坐(此为中国文化之精华)与念佛,有了这两样法宝,克服一切烦恼,超越艰难困苦,日子就好过了。

佛法是戒定慧三学。定是中心。打坐是修定的最好方法。定了才能看清自己的问题,见道才好修道。不断去掉自己的五个见惑(身见、边见、邪见、见取见、戒禁取见),五个思惑(贪、嗔、痴、慢、疑)。通过定,不断改变自己与生俱来的业力、习气。

如此,才可能做到拥有独立不可拔、卓尔不群的人格。才可能有所作为。老师说:“没有修养、智慧与学问,在茫茫世界中不庸俗很难。”

(三)行愿上学到了什么?

宋代两位大儒陈亮、辛弃疾主张“有功便是德”。人理当努力,在物质文明建设或精神文明建设对社会国家有所贡献。

学佛修道有五位,资粮位、加行位、见道位、修道位、究竟位。资粮位就是要积累福德资粮、智慧资粮,来源于修一切善法,积功累德。人的完成,人成则佛成。成佛是智慧的成就。打坐、念佛是加行位。不断在前两位精进。“只问耕耘,不问收获。”

我们时常在外面讲课。老师告诉我:“有6000元可作600元花,有600元不可作6000元花。”我谨遵师教,不断努力。佛法讲,遍学一切法。不断研究学习中西文化精华。尤其要深研唯识。《百法明行论》、《唯识十三颂》、《八识规矩颂》、《成唯识论》、《瑜伽师地论》、《楞伽经》等要深入研究,首先理上要明要通,否则盲修瞎练。

在人生真理的大道上,荆棘密布、坎坷艰辛。“路漫漫其修远兮,吾将上下而求索。”只有把它当成人生第一件事来看待,方才可能有些许成就。

人要吃饭,需要农民种粮食,要有良田,良田不能荒芜,否则我们将挨饿。往圣先贤给我们开辟了万代精神的良田,更不能荒芜。否则人类精神失去了粮食,失去了光明,茫然不知所从。南师说,一个国家、一个民族,亡国不可怕,最可怕是一个国家和民族自己的根本文化亡掉了,就会沦为万劫不复,永远不会翻身。五千年中国文化是中华民族的精神命脉,要不断传承。中华民族伟大复兴需要中华文化的伟大复兴。愿我们各位同仁承前启后,继往开来,为中国文化铁路,为人心的大道建设,共同努力奋斗!

 

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唯識新引

《成唯識論》新解 

唯識學會創辦人張尚德述

 達摩書院副院長黃高証

245

等無間緣

《成唯識論》卷七

二、等無間緣

二等無間緣。謂八現識及彼心所。前聚於後。自類無間。等而開導。令彼定生。

(述記:簡色不相應種子無為非此緣性。)

多同類種俱時轉故。如不相應。非此緣攝。

由斯八識非互為緣。

(述記:八識相望非互為緣。多類並生故。)

心所與心雖恒俱轉。而相應故和合似一。不可施設離別殊異。故得互作等無間緣。

(述記:同一所緣及同所依。同一時轉。同一性攝。)

入無餘心最極微劣。無開導用。又無當起等無間法。故非此緣。

(述記:第八十說。入無餘心前先入滅定滅六轉識。後方滅餘識。)

云何知然?

論有誠說。若此識等無間彼識等決定生。即說此是彼等無間緣故。

(述記:大論第三.及五十一.顯揚第十八與此文同。)

(一)阿陀那識為緣

即依此義應作是說。阿陀那識三界九地皆容互作等無間緣。下上死生相開等故。

有漏無間有無漏生。無漏定無生有漏者。鏡智起已必無斷故。

善與無記相望亦然。

此何界後引生無漏?

或從色界或欲界後。

(述記義演:即是頓悟漸悟菩薩二人若頓悟色界後生無漏若漸悟即唯欲界後引生無漏第八。)

謂諸異生求佛果者。定色界後引生無漏。後必生在淨居天上大自在宮得菩提故。

(述記:色界中無二乘迴心者。)

(述記義演:十地菩薩生第四禪。依後報身上得成佛。)

二乘迴趣大菩提者。定欲界後引生無漏。迴趣留身唯欲界故。彼雖必往大自在宮方得成佛。而本願力所留生身是欲界故。

(述記:上界無此迴心聖故。)

有義色界亦有聲聞迴趣大乘願留身者。既與教理俱不相違。是故聲聞第八無漏色界心後亦得現前。

然五淨居無迴趣者。經不說彼發大心故。

(述記:此言經者,大般若說。)

(二)末那識為緣

第七轉識三界九地亦容互作等無間緣。隨第八識生處繫故。

有漏無漏容互相生。十地位中得相引故。

善與無記相望亦然。

於無記中染與不染亦相開導。生空智果前後位中得相引故。

(述記:染者人執。不染者法執 生空智果者。智者即是無分別智。果者即後得智及此所引滅定。皆唯不染。)

此欲色界有漏得與無漏相生。非無色界。地上菩薩不生彼故。

(三)意識為緣

第六轉識三界九地有漏無漏善不善等各容互作等無間緣。潤生位等更相引故。

(述記:如來。第八地已去菩薩。得起一切處心。)

初起無漏唯色界後。決擇分善唯色界故。

(四)五識為緣

眼耳身識二界二地。鼻舌兩識一界一地。自類互作等無間緣。善等相望應知亦爾。

(述記義演:若眼耳身三識即欲界及初禪即上下界更互為緣也。若鼻舌二識唯在欲界有。上界無。即不可言上下界互為緣。若鼻舌二識善等三性。亦更互為等無間緣。)

有義五識有漏無漏自類互作等無間緣。未成佛時容互起故。

(述記義演:此有二師說。此師意說初地轉五識得成事智。乃至十地中皆容與有漏互起。)

有義無漏有漏後起。非無漏後容起有漏。無漏五識非佛無故。彼五色根定有漏故。是異熟識相分攝故。

(述記:此第二師。唯佛地得。)

(述記:問。有漏根生無漏識。有何義違。)

有漏不共必俱同境根發無漏識。理不相應故。

(述記:謂有漏者。簡無漏根。無漏根發無漏識無違故。不共者。簡有漏第八識是共。故可為無漏識依 必俱者。顯非等無間緣。等無間緣根前後生故。得依有漏 同境者。簡第七為六依。彼雖有前義。非同境故。此有漏根發無漏識。不相應故。)

此二於境明昧異故。

 

英譯(韋達)

2. SAMANANTARAPRATYAYA

Condition quâ Antecedent

Samanantarapratyaya, a condition quâ antecedent, means that the eight actual consciousnesses (darsana and samvittibhaga) and their Caittas (to the exclusion of Rupa, the Viprayuktas, the Bijas, and the Asamakrtas) constitute a preceding group which passes away to give place to a subsequent group of the same species, opening the way to that group and acting in such a way that it immediately comes into being.

1.     In regard to the innumerable Bijas of the same species, they are coexistent and, therefore, like unassociated dharmas (Viprayuktas), are not Samanantarapratyaya.

2.     According to the same principle, the eight consciousnesses are not Samanantarapratyaya between themselves, because several species of consciousness coexist.

3.     It is true that the Caittas coexist at all times with Citta; but they are 'associates' (samprayukta) of Citta (having the same object and the same supporting base, indriya; arising at the same time, and being of the same nature): they are therefore united with Citta in such a way that they form a sort of unity, and it is impossible to separate and differentiate between them. It is said therefore that Citta and Caittas are, reciprocally, Samanantarapratyaya. [The previous Citta is the Samanantarapratyaya of the subsequent Caitta of the same group.]

4. At the moment of entry into Nirupadhisesanirvana (Final-Nirvana-without-residue, i.e., Nirvana without vestiges of reincarnation), the mind is extremely weak and, in consequence, has not 'the strength to open the way and lead'. Further, it does not produce a subsequent dharma of a similar nature. Hence it is not Samanantarapratyaya.

How do you explain this?

It has been truly said in the Yogasastra that 'if, immediately after the former consciousness-associates, the latter consciousness-associates are born, then the former are the Samanantarapratyaya of the latter.' (Yogasastra, 3 and 51, and Vikhyapana, 18).

 

(1) The Adanavijnana as Samanantarapratyaya

In accordance with this doctrine, it may be said that the Adanavijnana of any one of the three Dhatus and any one of the nine Lands can be the Samanantarapratyaya of an Adanavijnana of any Dhatu and any Land, because, in the cycles of birth and death, the superior existences are introduced and brought about by the inferior existences, and vice versa.

An impure Adanavijnana (non-Buddha) can be succeeded by a pure Adanavijnana (Buddha); but the reverse is impossible, because the Great Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana), once attained, is never cut off.

The same relations exist between a good Adanavijnana and a non-defined Adanavijnana; the good succeeds the non-defined; the non-defined does not succeed the good.

To which Dhatu does the impure Adanavijnana belong which is succeeded by the pure Adanavijnana? [In other words, to which Dhatu does the existence belong with which one attains Buddhahood?] There are two opinions:

(1)   To Rupadhatu belong Bodhisattvas of instantaneous enlightenment and to Kamadhatu belong those of gradual enlightenment.

All Prthagjanas who aspire to the fruit of Buddha, who do not enter into the two Vehicles, must necessarily be born in [the fourth dhyana heaven of] Rupadhatu before they can produce pure Adanavijnanas and become Buddhas. Later they are reborn and reside, above the Suddhavasikas, in the Pure Land of Mahesvarabhuvana and there obtain Bodhi.

The Saints of the two Vehicles (Saiksas and Asaiksas) who turn their minds to Mahabodhi must necessarily be born in Kamadhatu before they can produce pure Adanavijnanas, because it is only in Kamadhatu that they can turn their minds to Mahabodhi and preserve their bodies. Although they must of necessity proceed to the Pure Land of Mahesvarabhuvana to attain Buddhahood, because they can only become Buddhas in that excellent place, nevertheless their 'bodies of birth' [the natural bodies, fruit of retribution], which they preserve by the force of their 'great vows and resolutions' (mahapranidhana), are Kamadhatu bodies.

(2)   According to another opinion, which is correct, it is neither at variance with the texts nor with logical reasoning that some Sravakas turn their minds to Mahabodhi and preserve their bodies not only in Kamadhatu but also in Rupadhatu. Consequently, for the Sravakas also, the pure eighth consciousness can follow immediately the consciousness of Rupadhatu.

As regards the fact that in the five Suddhavasikas there are no saints turning their minds to Mahabodhi, this is because the Mahaprajnaparamitasutra does not say that they manifest 'the great mind of Bodhi' necessary for their reorientation towards the Greater Vehicle.

(2) Manas as Samanantarapratyaya

Manas (seventh Pravrttivijnana) of any one Dhatu and any one Land can be Samanantarapratyaya of Manas of any other Dhatu and any other Land, because Manas is tied to the place of birth of the eighth consciousness.

Impure or pure Manas can be the Samanantarapratyaya of impure or pure Manas, because the two states of Manas can succeed one another in the course of the ten Bhumis according to whether the yogin is entering pure or impure contemplations.

In the same way, good and non-defined states succeed one another.

Among the non-defined states, the defiled state (characterized by the presence of pudgalagraha) and the non-defiled state (characterized by the presence of dharmagraha only) succeed one another, because non-defiled states (wisdom of pudgalasunyata, i.e., 'non-discriminating wisdom', and its two fruits, 'subsequent wisdom' and nirodhasamapatti) can follow and precede defiled states.

It is only in Kamadhatu and Rupadhatu that pure and impure Manas are reciprocally Samanantarapratyaya; not in Arupyadhatu, because Bodhisattvas of the higher Lands are not born in this Dhatu.

(3) Manovijnana as Samanantarapratyaya

The Manovijnana of any one of the three Dhatus and any one of the nine Lands, pure, impure, good, bad, etc., can be Samanantarapratyaya of the Manovijnana of any other Dhatu, etc. In fact, at the moment of the 'moistening of birth', i.e., the moistening and fertilizing of the ripened, Bijas which causes birth into a certain Dhatu, the Manovijnanas of the three Dhatus and the nine Lands can reciprocally engender one another. [The Buddha and the Bodhisattvas of the three superior Bhumis can engender minds in all spheres of consciousness.]

It is only as a sequel of the mind of the fourth dhyana heaven of Rupadhatu that the pure Manovijnana is born for the first time (at darsanamarga), because the pure mind of nirvedhabhagiya (true discrimination or wisdom which precedes darsanamarga) belongs to Rupadhatu.

(4) The Five Consciousnesses as Samanantarapratyaya

The consciousnesses of the eye, the ear, and the body, of Kamadhatu and the first dhyana heaven of Rupadhatu are, each according to its kind, Samanantarapratyaya of each other. The same applies, in the land of Kamadhatu, to the consciousnesses of the nose and the tongue. In the same way the good, bad and non-defined perceptions of each of the five consciousnesses can succeed one another.

For those Masters who think that a Bodhisattva attains the Krtyanusthanajnana (wisdom of creative achievement) as soon as he enters into the Bhumis, the pure and impure elements of the five consciousnesses are Samanantarapratyaya of each other, each according to its kind, because, prior to the attainment of Buddhahood, the Krtyanusthanajnana permits the reciprocal emergence of the pure and impure elements of the Five.

For those Masters who reserve the Krtyanusthana for Buddhas alone, the five impure consciousnesses are, at the moment of the attainment of Buddha-hood, Samanantarapratyaya of the five pure consciousnesses; the pure are never Samanantarapratyaya of the impure, for non-Buddhas never have the five pure consciousnesses. In fact, their five material organs are definitely impure, forming as they do a part of the nimittabhaga of the eighth consciousness, Vipakavijnana, which only becomes pure on the acquisition of the qualities of a Buddha.

[But, it may be asked, why should the five impure organs not engender pure consciousness?]

The explanation is that the five impure organs are the special supporting basis for the consciousnesses that correspond to them in contradistinction to the Alayavijnana which is the general supporting basis for all consciousnesses and which can be impure without Manovijnana necessarily being so. They are simultaneous to the consciousnesses that correspond to them and cannot be compared to the impure dharmas which are Samananpratyaya of pure dharmas. They have the same object as the consciousnesses which correspond to them while Manas has not the same object as Manovijnana and can in consequence be impure without the latter necessarily being so.

It is therefore impossible for the five impure organs to engender pure consciousnesses. The five impure organs are 'dark and obscure' and cannot produce pure consciousness which must be 'clear and bright'.

 

中譯(黃高証)

2、等無間緣

等無間緣,就是八個現識(見分和自證分)及其相應的心所(其中不含色法、不相應行法、種子、無為法),前聚念消,同類後念相聚隨起,前後無間開導,使之必生

1、若眾多同類種子俱時而轉,屬同時共生,就像不相應行法,並非等無間緣所攝。

2、由此可知八個識彼此也非互為等無間緣,因為識可以多個俱時並起。

3、心所與心雖然恒時俱轉,而且心所與心相應(同所緣、同所依、同時轉、同性質),故彼此和合似一,密不可分,難辨殊異。所以說心與心所互作等無間緣(前念心是同類後心所的等無間緣)。

4、入無餘涅槃最後心時,心能最極微劣,故無開導之用。此外,它又沒有同性繼起之等無間法,故非等無間緣所攝

這要如何解釋呢?

《瑜伽論》中有說:「若前識等方滅,後識等即生,則前者是後者的等無間緣。見《瑜伽論》卷351,及顯揚聖教論》卷18)。

1)以阿陀那識為等無間緣

依本論所言,三界九地中任一界地的阿陀那識,都可以作為其他界地阿陀那識之等無間緣。因為眾生在生死輪轉中,有的從下地死後生上地,也有從上地死後投下地。

凡夫的阿陀那識雖有漏,但可轉為無漏(成佛)。反之,佛的無漏定然不會再生有漏。因為成就大圓鏡智後,必定無間不退

阿陀那識與無記阿陀那識之間的轉化亦是如此,阿陀那識可由無記轉為善性,轉善後便不再生無記。

 阿陀那識有漏,要到三界中的哪一界後才引生無漏呢?(換句話說,菩薩在哪一界成佛說法有二:

1頓悟菩薩從色界後引生無漏,漸悟者在欲界後引生無漏

欲求佛果的所有凡夫,若不隨二乘之流,定在投生色界四禪天後,引生無漏以成佛。然後,祂們必生到淨居天的大自在宮,在那裡證得菩提。

二乘發大菩提心的聖者(有學和無學)必在欲界後引生無漏阿陀那識,因為祂們唯有在欲界才能迴小向大和留形於世。祂們雖必往生大自在宮方得成佛,但隨其大誓願力而留形於世的生身(自然身,異熟果)卻是欲界身。

2)另有一說,並不違背經文或邏輯推理,故亦為真。彼說有些聲聞也可在色界留身,迴趣大乘,而不是只在欲界才如此。所以聲聞的第八無漏識,在色界心後也可以現前。

五淨居天中,沒有迴小向大的聖者,這是因為《大般若經》並沒有說祂們能發大菩提心,行大乘道。

2)以末那識為等無間緣

末那識(第七轉識)在三界九地中任一界地,都可以作為其他界地末那識的等無間緣,因為末那識是與第八識投生處連繫在一起的。

有漏或無漏的末那識,可以互為等無間緣,因為二者在菩薩十地階位中可以互相引生,全看行者之靜慮,是染或淨。

同樣地,末那識的善性和無記也是相互引生的。

於無記狀態,染法(帶有人執、法執)與不染法(僅存法執),也是相互開導的,因為無染位(生空智,即無分別智,和所引二果:後得智、滅盡定)與染位,可以前後互相引生。

只有 在欲界和色界時,有漏、無漏的末那識能互為等無間緣。但無色界例外,因為地上菩薩不生至無色界

3)以意識為等無間緣

意識在三界九地中任一界地的有漏、無漏、善與不善等,都可以作為其他界地意識的等無間緣。事實上,在轉生時的種子潤生位等,三界九地的意識可以互相引生。 [佛與八地以上菩薩們可在一切識處起心。]

只有到了色界第四禪天後,無漏意識初起(見道位),因為能發無漏心的決擇分善或加行善(智),唯在色界才有。

4)以前五識為等無間緣

在欲界和色界初禪時,眼、耳、身三識,都能自類互作等無間緣;欲界的鼻、舌二識也是如此。乃至善、無記等,都能相互緣生

有些論師認為,登地菩薩便有成所作智,前五識的有漏、無漏都可以自類互作等無間緣。因為未成佛時的成所作智,皆容許前五識的無漏和有漏互起。

另有論師認為,成所作智唯佛獨具。成佛時,有漏的前五識可以作為無漏前五識的等無間緣,但無漏不能作為有漏的等無間緣,因為在沒有成佛時是不會有無漏五識的。事實上,未成佛時的五色根,決定是有漏的,屬於第八異熟識的相分所攝。要到成就佛果時才轉為無漏。

[但有人問:有漏根何以不能生無漏識?]

有漏的五根是有漏識的不共依。這不像第八識,可作為諸識共依。即使意識清淨時,第八識也可能是有漏的。且根、識相應同起,不像有漏法可為無漏法的等無間緣。前五根與識相應,所緣境同。但意識與意根的所緣不同,無論意識性狀如何,意根都可能是染污的。

所以,有漏的前五根不可能起無漏識。因五染根昏昧不明,不能發起清明的淨識。

 

尚德按:

《成唯識論》講等無間緣,可以說把整個佛法都說進去了。它的主旨,雖然是在談八識中存在的變化,然其中有兩點最值得注意和了解的。

第一點,存在根源的阿陀那識是可以有善性的。了解唯識這一點,至為重要。因為這與儒家所強調:「萬物並育而不相害」的道理,是一樣的。

第二點重要的是,當第八識發生作用時,第七識參與其中作活動,這就說明第八識雖然無覆無記,一旦第七識跟隨著(等無間)參與其中活動,那就是將第七識的有覆無記摻進去了。

前面講第八識阿陀那識可以有善性,現在第七識一進到第八識起始的活動,那身為種子識的第八識(阿陀那識),就有染污了。一句話,一切存在起始的阿陀那識,是有善性和染污的。不論染污與善性,它們都是以空和有的形式與內容展現出來的。種子識的開展,對存在,特別是人的存在,固然重要。但從人要超越煩惱來說,是絕對不能落在有與空上的。所以印心的《楞伽經》一開始就說:

「世間離生滅,猶如虛空華,智不得有無,而興大悲心」

另外,需了解的是,從時間的無盡連續和空間的無盡綿延來看,空間與時間兩者,在存在的相應表現中,是等無間緣的。

《禮記》言:

「凡物皆命。」

擴大和深入來說,一切存在的起始、成長,互存互育,互化互消,無不是在等無間緣中。

何其唯獨人在等無間緣中呢!

 

246

待續  

 

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《指月錄》的破竈

 

嵩嶽破竈墮和尚。不稱名氏。言行叵測。隱居嵩嶽。山塢有廟甚靈。殿中惟安一竈。遠近祭祀不輟。烹宰物命甚多。師一日領侍僧入廟。以杖敲竈三下曰。咄。此竈。只是泥瓦合成。聖從何來。靈從何起。恁麼烹宰物命。又打三下。竈乃傾破墮落。須臾有一人青衣峩冠。設拜師前。師曰。是甚麼人。曰我本此廟竈神。久受業報。今日蒙師說無生法。得脫此處。生在天中。特來致謝。師曰。是汝本有之性。非吾強言。神再禮而沒。少選侍僧問曰。某等久侍和尚。不蒙示誨。竈神得甚麼徑旨。便得生天。師曰。我只向伊道。是泥瓦合成。別也無道理為伊。侍僧無言。師曰會麼。僧曰不會。師曰。本有之性。為甚麼不會。侍僧等乃禮拜。師曰。破也破也。墮也墮也。僧問。物物無形時如何。師曰。禮即唯汝非我。不禮即唯我非汝。其僧乃禮謝。師曰。本有之物。物非物也。所以道。心能轉物。即同如來。

 

高証按:

張老師這次春節禪七,特地把《指月錄》的〈破竈墮和尚〉告訴大家。

張老師說:

很多人不拜天命拜鬼神。

二零一九年二月十三日

於台灣達摩書院