I. THE FOUR PRATYAYAS Conditioning Factors
IT has been said that the
various kinds of distinction (Vikalpas) are born through having as
conditioning factors (Pratyayas) the Bijas and the actual dharmas. In
what way should we understand this causality?
The Pratyayas (conditioning
factors) are four in number, Hetupratyaya, Samanantarapratyaya,
Alambanapratyaya, and Adhipatipratyaya.
Condition quâ Cause
Hetupratyaya (causative condition) means that the conditioned dharams (samskrta)
produce without mediation their own fruit. The substance of this
Pratyaya is twofold: (1) the Bijas that engender and (2) the actual
dharmas that perfume.
1. Bijas. - Bijas are the different powers or potentials (sakti) of
the Mulavijnana, good, bad, non-defined, of all Dhatus, of all Lands, of
Rupa, of non-Rupa, etc. The Bijas are Hetupratyaya in a double action:
on the one hand, they lead to the production of Bijas which are of the
same species and which are subsequent to them (the Bija creates a Bija
similar to itself); on the other hand, they produce actual
consciousnesses of the same species which are simultaneous with them.
2. Actual dharmas. - Actual dharmas refer to the seven evolving or
transforming consciousnesses or Pravrttivijnanas (samvittibhagas), with
their .Caittas, their two Bhagas, good, bad, etc., of all Dhatus, of all
Lands, pure, impure, etc. - with the exception of the good dharmas of
the Buddha and the non-defined extremely-weak dharmas - which perfume
the Mulavijnana and engender Bijas of their own species. The actual
dharmas are Hetupratyaya in this single operation only.
The eighth actual consciousness (the consciousness with its Bhagas,
Caittas, etc.) does not perfume. The eighth, being itself 'the
perfumable', does not perfume anything. But, it may be asked, do not the
Caittas perfume, since their King, the eighth consciousness, is
perfumable? No, because the Caittas, apart from their king and support,
cannot perfume by themselves.
the case of non-Buddhas, the eighth and the first six consciousnesses,
when they proceed from retribution (vikapaja), are extremely weak; so
they do not perfume; in the case of the Buddha, the eighth is perfect in
all perfections; hence it is not perfumable.
The successive moments of manifestation of the same species of actual
dharmas are not Hetupratyaya between themselves, because each of them is
born from its own Bija.
Nor are dharmas of different species Hetupratyaya between themselves,
because there is no immediate and direct generation between them. [The
Bijas of the eye-consciousness are not the Hetupratyaya of those of the
According to one text (Tsa-tsi), the actual dharmas whether of the same
or of different species, are Hetupratyaya between themselves: this is
because the author has expressed himself in incorrect terms; he is in
fact referring to Adhipathipratyaya (condition quâ contributory factor)
or has accepted the opinion of the Sarvastivadins.
several passages, the Yogasastra describes single Bijas as Hetupratyaya,
partly because their action is manifest and partly because, forming as
they do a continuing series, they are important. This is not a perfectly
correct theory, because other declarations in the same Treatise have
clearly established that the Pravrttivijnanas (i.e., the six
consciousnesses and actual Manas), on the one hand, and the eighth
consciousness, on the other, are reciprocally Hetupratyaya. [There are
three modes of hetupratyayata: Bijas engendering Bijas, Bijas
engendering actual dharmas, actual dharmas perfuming Bijas.]