Condition quâ Antecedent
Samanantarapratyaya, a condition quâ
antecedent, means that the eight actual consciousnesses (darsana and
samvittibhaga) and their Caittas (to the exclusion of Rupa, the
Viprayuktas, the Bijas, and the Asamakrtas) constitute a preceding group
which passes away to give place to a subsequent group of the same
species, opening the way to that group and acting in such a way that it
immediately comes into being.
1. In regard to the innumerable Bijas of the same species, they are
coexistent and, therefore, like unassociated dharmas (Viprayuktas), are
2. According to the same principle, the eight consciousnesses are
not Samanantarapratyaya between themselves, because several species of
3. It is true that the Caittas coexist at all times with Citta; but
they are 'associates' (samprayukta) of Citta (having the same object and
the same supporting base, indriya; arising at the same time, and being
of the same nature): they are therefore united with Citta in such a way
that they form a sort of unity, and it is impossible to separate and
differentiate between them. It is said therefore that Citta and Caittas
are, reciprocally, Samanantarapratyaya. [The previous Citta is the
Samanantarapratyaya of the subsequent Caitta of the same group.]
the moment of entry into Nirupadhisesanirvana
(Final-Nirvana-without-residue, i.e., Nirvana without vestiges of
reincarnation), the mind is extremely weak and, in consequence, has not
'the strength to open the way and lead'. Further, it does not produce a
subsequent dharma of a similar nature. Hence it is not
How do you explain this?
It has been truly said in the
Yogasastra that 'if, immediately after the former
consciousness-associates, the latter consciousness-associates are born,
then the former are the Samanantarapratyaya of the latter.' (Yogasastra,
3 and 51, and Vikhyapana, 18).
(1) The Adanavijnana as
In accordance with this
doctrine, it may be said that the Adanavijnana of any one of the three
Dhatus and any one of the nine Lands can be the Samanantarapratyaya of
an Adanavijnana of any Dhatu and any Land, because, in the cycles of
birth and death, the superior existences are introduced and brought
about by the inferior existences, and vice versa.
An impure Adanavijnana
(non-Buddha) can be succeeded by a pure Adanavijnana (Buddha); but the
reverse is impossible, because the Great Mirror Wisdom (Adarsajnana),
once attained, is never cut off.
The same relations exist
between a good Adanavijnana and a non-defined Adanavijnana; the good
succeeds the non-defined; the non-defined does not succeed the good.
To which Dhatu does the
impure Adanavijnana belong which is succeeded by the pure Adanavijnana?
[In other words, to which Dhatu does the existence belong with which one
attains Buddhahood?] There are two opinions:
To Rupadhatu belong Bodhisattvas of instantaneous enlightenment and to
Kamadhatu belong those of gradual enlightenment.
All Prthagjanas who aspire to
the fruit of Buddha, who do not enter into the two Vehicles, must
necessarily be born in [the fourth dhyana heaven of] Rupadhatu before
they can produce pure Adanavijnanas and become Buddhas. Later they are
reborn and reside, above the Suddhavasikas, in the Pure Land of
Mahesvarabhuvana and there obtain Bodhi.
The Saints of the two
Vehicles (Saiksas and Asaiksas) who turn their minds to Mahabodhi must
necessarily be born in Kamadhatu before they can produce pure
Adanavijnanas, because it is only in Kamadhatu that they can turn their
minds to Mahabodhi and preserve their bodies. Although they must of
necessity proceed to the Pure Land of Mahesvarabhuvana to attain
Buddhahood, because they can only become Buddhas in that excellent
place, nevertheless their 'bodies of birth' [the natural bodies, fruit
of retribution], which they preserve by the force of their 'great vows
and resolutions' (mahapranidhana), are Kamadhatu bodies.
According to another opinion, which is correct, it is neither at
variance with the texts nor with logical reasoning that some Sravakas
turn their minds to Mahabodhi and preserve their bodies not only in
Kamadhatu but also in Rupadhatu. Consequently, for the Sravakas also,
the pure eighth consciousness can follow immediately the consciousness
As regards the fact that in
the five Suddhavasikas there are no saints turning their minds to
Mahabodhi, this is because the Mahaprajnaparamitasutra does not say that
they manifest 'the great mind of Bodhi' necessary for their
reorientation towards the Greater Vehicle.
(2) Manas as
Pravrttivijnana) of any one Dhatu and any one Land can be
Samanantarapratyaya of Manas of any other Dhatu and any other Land,
because Manas is tied to the place of birth of the eighth consciousness.
Impure or pure Manas can be
the Samanantarapratyaya of impure or pure Manas, because the two states
of Manas can succeed one another in the course of the ten Bhumis
according to whether the yogin is entering pure or impure
In the same way, good and
non-defined states succeed one another.
Among the non-defined states,
the defiled state (characterized by the presence of pudgalagraha) and
the non-defiled state (characterized by the presence of dharmagraha
only) succeed one another, because non-defiled states (wisdom of
pudgalasunyata, i.e., 'non-discriminating wisdom', and its two fruits,
'subsequent wisdom' and nirodhasamapatti) can follow and precede defiled
It is only in Kamadhatu and
Rupadhatu that pure and impure Manas are reciprocally
Samanantarapratyaya; not in Arupyadhatu, because Bodhisattvas of the
higher Lands are not born in this Dhatu.
(3) Manovijnana as
The Manovijnana of any one of
the three Dhatus and any one of the nine Lands, pure, impure, good, bad,
etc., can be Samanantarapratyaya of the Manovijnana of any other Dhatu,
etc. In fact, at the moment of the 'moistening of birth', i.e., the
moistening and fertilizing of the ripened, Bijas which causes birth into
a certain Dhatu, the Manovijnanas of the three Dhatus and the nine Lands
can reciprocally engender one another. [The Buddha and the Bodhisattvas
of the three superior Bhumis can engender minds in all spheres of
It is only as a sequel of the
mind of the fourth dhyana heaven of Rupadhatu that the pure Manovijnana
is born for the first time (at darsanamarga), because the pure mind of
nirvedhabhagiya (true discrimination or wisdom which precedes
darsanamarga) belongs to Rupadhatu.
(4) The Five Consciousnesses
The consciousnesses of the
eye, the ear, and the body, of Kamadhatu and the first dhyana heaven of
Rupadhatu are, each according to its kind, Samanantarapratyaya of each
other. The same applies, in the land of Kamadhatu, to the
consciousnesses of the nose and the tongue. In the same way the good,
and non-defined perceptions of each of the five consciousnesses can
succeed one another.
For those Masters who think
that a Bodhisattva attains the Krtyanusthanajnana (wisdom of creative
achievement) as soon as he enters into the Bhumis, the pure and impure
elements of the five consciousnesses are Samanantarapratyaya of each
other, each according to its kind, because, prior to the attainment of
Buddhahood, the Krtyanusthanajnana permits the reciprocal emergence of
the pure and impure elements of the Five.
For those Masters who reserve
the Krtyanusthana for Buddhas alone, the five impure consciousnesses
are, at the moment of the attainment of Buddha-hood, Samanantarapratyaya
of the five pure consciousnesses; the pure are never Samanantarapratyaya
of the impure, for non-Buddhas never have the five pure consciousnesses.
In fact, their five material organs are definitely impure, forming as
they do a part of the nimittabhaga of the eighth consciousness,
Vipakavijnana, which only becomes pure on the acquisition of the
qualities of a Buddha.
[But, it may be asked, why
should the five impure organs not engender pure consciousness?]
The explanation is that the
five impure organs are the special supporting basis for the
consciousnesses that correspond to them in contradistinction to the
Alayavijnana which is the general supporting basis for all
consciousnesses and which can be impure without Manovijnana necessarily
being so. They are simultaneous to the consciousnesses that correspond
to them and cannot be compared to the impure dharmas which are
Samananpratyaya of pure dharmas. They have the same object as the
consciousnesses which correspond to them，
while Manas has not the same object as Manovijnana and can in
consequence be impure without the latter necessarily being so.
It is therefore impossible
for the five impure organs to engender pure consciousnesses. The five
impure organs are 'dark and obscure' and cannot produce pure
consciousness which must be 'clear and bright'.